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With the Banking Regulatory and Supervisory Authority’s [the “BRSA”] decision numbered 10250 and dated 24 June 2022 [the “Restriction Decision”], TRL borrowing by Companies [“Companies”], other than banks and financial institutions, which are subject to independent audit has become subject to a foreign currency asset [“FX-Asset”] restriction was introduced.

The two main forms of non-governmental organizations that may be established in Romania are the associations and foundations. While an association may be incorporated by at least three domestic/foreign individuals/entities as founding members, a foundation may be incorporated by at least one domestic/foreign individual/entity as founding member(s). Associations are set up in order to carry out activities for the general interest, for the interest of a community or for the non-profit interests of its members and the law does not impose a minimum initial patrimony.

New FDI legislation entered into force on 1 May 2021. It introduced a mandatory, suspensory, pre-closing notification obligation for acquisitions of "effective control" over companies active in the Czech Republic in industries deemed capable of threatening the security of the Czech Republic and internal or public order by parties resident outside the European Union, or whose ultimate controlling parent is resident outside the European Union.

Only a few years ago, Europe faced a major upheaval to the international economy with Brexit, i.e. the exit of the United Kingdom from the European Union. This event, like the war in Ukraine or the COVID-19 pandemic, has had significant consequences for the global economy, affecting the quality of our daily lives.

Against the background of energy transition and of the states’ need to ensure their energy security in the current geopolitical context, offshore renewable energy technologies have gained increased attention. Today, they have been included in renewable energy policies both in the European Union ("EU") and in the EU Member States, whether we are talking about wave energy, tidal energy, energy produced by floating photovoltaic panels, floating wind turbines and wind turbines attached to the seabed.

Recently, non-fungible tokens (“NFTs”) have become the subject of significant public attention, primarily due to the high amounts of money allocated for their purchase. For example, it is estimated that the worth of the global NFT market in 2021 was about 41 billion dollars, which is more than the value of the market of classical works of art. For the sake of comparison, that is approximately twice the amount of the budget of the Republic of Serbia for 2022. Bearing in mind the nature and manner of functioning of NFTs, the nature of things raises the question of their relationship with intellectual property law, and above all, the relationship with trademark law​.

The Competition Board (the “Board”), the competent decision-making organ of the Turkish Competition Authority, no longer has the quorum required to render final/executable decisions as the tenure of three (3) members came to an end as of the beginning of August 2022. Final decisions, including merger clearance decisions, closure of pre-investigation and investigation procedures, are currently pending while the Board is awaiting official assignment of new board members to re-establish final/executable decision quorum.

We are four months into the conflict between Russia and Ukraine and still a long way from a conclusion awaited by so many people. Beyond the reasons of this conflict and potential outcome lies the dramatic change in the lives of the Ukrainian population. Daily updates in the proportion of displaced Ukrainians paint a vivid picture of the unfolding drama that affects not only Ukraine, but Europe and much parts of the world.

Indicating a patent number on the product or, when in the course of issuing such, the “patent pending” indication applied on either the packaging or the product itself, is typically understood in IP terms as “patent marking”. Patent marking is not mandatory in Romania and, in consequence, there is no standard format for the patent marking to be applied on the patented products.

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