Ex Works (EXW) is an international trade term and is one of the 11 current Incoterms Rules, a set of standardized international trade terms that are published by the ICC (International Chamber of Commerce). EXW means that the seller fulfils his obligation to deliver when he has made the goods available at his premises (i.e., factory, warehouse, etc.) to the buyer. The buyer bears all costs and risks involved in taking the goods from the seller's premises to the desired destination.
From 2021 entrepreneurs running sole proprietorships have been granted certain benefits, which had so far been enjoyed only by consumers. All this is due to the change in the Polish Civil Code and the consumer rights legislation referred to as the so-called "friendly law package" (Polish Journal of Laws 2019, item 1495). Based on the perspective of entrepreneurs, this paper outlines the challenges brought about by the amendment.
Turkey and the United Kingdom (the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland ) (the “UK”) signed the Free Trade Agreement (the “FTA”) on December 29th, 2020 just before the UK exits European Union (the “EU”). The FTA, which came into force as of January 1st, 2021, ensures special trading terms for UK businesses, which can continue to export and import under preferential tariffs, compared with no agreement.
On December 7th, 2020, the President of the Polish Competition Authority informed the public about the first decision of its kind regarding the Competition Authority imposing a fine on managers. The fine, an amount of PLN 200,000.00, was imposed on the President of the Management Board of Veolia Energia Warszawa S.A., Jacky Lacombe. Lacombe has been found guilty of violating the competition law.